Biomarkers: the key to investigation of pre-symptomatic AD
Pre-symptomatic AD cannot be investigated by only relying on clinical symptoms. Instead, we need other indicators to reveal the development of the biological process. These indicators are called biomarkers. They may include changes in neuroimaging results as well as in the chemistry of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or other body fluids (figure below). The study of AD biomarkers will provide the best chance of advancing knowledge on the AD pathogensis and possible target for AD prevention.
The Prevent-AD Program investigates the following biomarkers:
- Imagingvolumes of brain structures, cortical thickness, connectivity, synchronicity of electric signals, grey matter density, integrity of fibres, blood flow, brain activity at rest and during a memory task
- Cerebrospinal Fluidamyloid beta, tau, cytokines, albumin
- Neurosensory TestingCentral Auditory Processing, Odor identification
- Spatial Orientation & NavigationCollaboration with Veronique Bohbot
- Cognitive MeasuresMoCA, CDR, RBANS
- Studies of risk factorspharmacological profile, medical history, lifestyle, physical activity, hobbies, diet habits, blood pressure, blood & urine analysis
Figure: Data-driven model from Iturria-Medina et al., 2015 to represent the progression of biomarkers abnormality from healthy controls (HC), through early Mild Cognitive Impairment (EMCI), late MCI, and towards the late onset Alzheimer Disease (LOAD).